A 2-year-old boy with a tumor in his eye is the first to undergo X-ray treatment from a medical linear accelerator developed by Henry Kaplan and campus physicists.
Surgeon Roy Cohn leads the first human kidney transplant operation on the West Coast.
Stanford creates the first neonatal intensive care unit that allows visitation by parents.
Otolaryngologists Blair Simmons and John Epley electrically stimulate nerve cells in the ear of a 61-year-old deaf man by implanting six tiny wires in his auditory nerve, paving the way for cochlear implants.
Ophthalmologists Milton Flocks and Christian Zweng successfully use a laser photocoagulator to treat patients with various retinal diseases.
The first sleep-apnea monitors for infants with a variety of acute and chronic disorders are put into use.
Researchers develop a technique for extracting blood required to avoid internal bleeding in hemophiliacs.
Nobel laureate Arthur Kornberg creates a strand of biologically active DNA, paving the way for studies of genetics.
Norman Shumway successfully transplants a heart into 54-year-old steelworker Mike Kasperak, who survives for 14 days.
Researchers John Farquhar and Gerald Reaven discover the principal physiological characteristic of type-2 diabetes is insulin resistance.
Scientists Arthur Kornberg and Douglas Brutlag discover that DNA replication can be prepared by the host RNA.
John Farquhar and Peter Wood lead the first large clinical investigation that shows lowering cholesterol levels prevents heart disease.
Biochemist Paul Berg successfully combines the DNA of two different organisms. The discovery later earns Berg the 1980 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
John Farquhar and Peter Wood conduct the first large-scale education about the treatment and prevention of heart disease.
Immunologist Hugh McDevitt discovers regulatory genes believed to control the body's reponses to foreign proteins, which suggests that people may have predictable susceptibility to certain diseases.
Geneticist Stanely Cohen transfers a foreign gene into bacterial cells, which then express the gene.
Researcher William S. Robinson isolates the genetic blueprint of a virus that causes hepatitis B and a common form of liver cancer.
John Farquhar and Peter Wood demonstrate that exercise is associated with an increase in "good" cholesterol levels, and can decrease the likelihood of coronary problems.
Pharmacologist Avram Goldstein discovers a chemical in the human brain that could lead to the development of powerful painkillers with fewer undesirable side effects.
Henry Kaplan and Lennart Olsson create cells to manufacture human antibodies for the improved diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Mary Gohlke receives the world's first combined heart and lung transplant in a landmark operation led by surgeon Bruce Reitz.
Oncologist Ronald Levy reports the first successful use of monoclonal antibodies, which are laboratory-created molecules engineered to attach to specific defects in cancer cells.
Stanford's Henry Kaplan and Nelson Teng and colleagues at UC-San Diego develop the first human monoclonal antibody for treating overwhelming infections.
Immunologist Mark Davis characterizes the T-cell receptor, believed to regulate the body's response to infectious agents and cancerous diseases.
Pathologist Irving Weissman isolates a rare mouse cell, known as the hematopoetic stem cell, which gives rise to all the cells of the blood and immune systems.
Researchers Irving Weissman and Mike McCune create an animal model that can be used to study a variety of human diseases.
Pathologist Eugene Butcher discovers a receptor that guides white blood cells into the peripheral lymph nodes.
Biochemist Arthur Kornberg finds a chemical impulse that turns off the reproductive machinery in the chromosomes of E. coli bacteria.
Oncologist Ron Levy develops a cancer vaccine that could prevent recurrrent lymphomas in patients treated with chemotherapy.
Neurobiologist Eric Shooter finds a gene involved in nerve disorders in which the protective covering on nerves breaks down.
Researchers produce the first functional image using time-resolved, near-infrared light.
Researchers Joel Killen and Thomas Robinson publish findings that shed light on the causes of eating disorders in adolescents.
Researcher William Haskell shows that intensive lifestyle changes and prevention/treatment programs can reduce cardiac events and slow the progression of atherosclerosis in coronary arteries.
Pathologist Gerald Crabtree develops techniques that allow scientists to toggle genes on and off in animal models.
Neonatologist David Stevenson develops a diagnostic instrument that provides rapid bedside screening for the breakdown of red blood cells in jaundiced newborns.
Biochemist Pat Brown and colleagues develop microarrays, or gene chips, that allow researchers to analyze the activity of thousands of genes in a cell at once.
Christpher Contag and David Benaron develop optical imaging that allows researchers to detect and track bioluminescent bacteria in mice.
Oncologist Amato Giaccia and his colleagues find that the p53 protein, known to be involved in controlling cancerous tumors, can help halt cancer development.
Developmental biologist Matthew Scott and a team at UC-San Francisco discover that a defect in the hedgehog gene causes basal cell carcinoma.
Christopher Contag develops a technique to detect light emitted when certain genes are activated in a living animal model.
Pediatric oncologist Michael Link leads a study that shows chemotherapy can be reduced by two-thirds in children with early-stage non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with no negative consequences.
Pediatrician Thomas Robinson finds that children who curtailed their television time gained significantly less body fat than those who didn't .
Sleep researcher Emmanuel Mignot identifies the defective gene that causes narcolepsy, a disabling sleep disorder affecting humans and animals.
Structural biologist Roger Kornberg shows the structure of the RNA polymerase protein, a step in the transfer of information from gene to protein. The discovery will later earn Kornberg the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Developmental biologist David Kingsley discovers that a gene that transports pyrophosphate into cells may regulate the development of arthritis in humans and animals.
Teams headed by geneticist Richard Myers and biochemist Ronald Davis help sequence the human genome.
In a study in mice, researcher Rosemarie DeKruyff identifies a gene family that may underlie the development of asthma.
Geneticist Mark Kay uses a gene-therapy technique known as RNA inihibition to switch off genes in mice, which could point toward development treatments for cancer, hepatitis C and AIDS.
Developmental biologist Roeland Nusse isolates a group of proteins called Wnts that help keep stem cells in their youthful state.
Endocrinologist Aaron Hsueh discovers obestatin, a hormone that supresses appetite and may lead to treatments for obesity.
Radiation oncologist Amato Giaccia identifies a protein called lysyl oxidase that, when found in a low-oxygen environment, may cause fast-spreading cancers.
Neurosurgeon Gary Steinberg tracks human stem cells transplated into brain of rats, finding that they successfully navigate toward areas damaged by stroke.
Bioengineer Karl Deisseroth and his team develop a technique known as optogenetics that allows them to genetically alter brain cell activity in mice with light.
Pediatric nephrologist Minnie Sarwal finds that kidney transplant recipients with a similar gene-expression pattern were able to eliminate or reduce their dependence on immunosuppressive drugs.
Radiation oncologist Amato Giaccia identifies a molecule that kills kidney cancer cells, which could provide new treatment options.
Radiologist Sanjiv Gambhir develops a new type of imaging system that can illuminate tumors in living subjects with a precision of nearly one-trillionth of a meter
Bioenginner Stephen Quake and his team develop a method of screening a pregnant woman's blood to identify chromosomal disorders, such as Down syndrome, in her fetus.
A technique developed by bioengineer Stephen Quake enables him to sequencs his own genome for less than $50,000 and with a team of just two others.
Pathologist Irving Weissman identifies the stem cell that gives rise to bladder cancer, and also shows how the cell uses the "don't-eat-me" signal, a molecule known as CD47, to evade the body's defenses.
A team of researchers led by Irving Weissman discovers that leukemia stem cells evade detection by mimicking normal cells and moving safely within the body.
A team of researchers analyzes bioengineer Stephen Quake's genome, predicting his likelihood of developing heart disease, Alzheimer's and cancer.
Pathologist Marius Wernig turns mouse skin cells into cells that insulate neurons with the application of just three genes.
Physicians at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford use aggregate patient data from electronic medical records to identify the best option for treating a patient with rare disorder.
Studies by Marina Sirota, Joel Dudley and Atul Butte demonstrate an approach that could quicken the pace of combating difficult diseases by matching them with drugs that are already approved for other indications.
Bioengineer Karl Deisseroth uses the optogenetic technique in mice to switch on and off the social-behavior deficits that resemble those in humans with autism and schizophrenia.
Using skin cells from patients with a severe genetic heart defect, neurobiologist Ricardo Dolmetsch creates human heart cells with the same genetic mutation, allowing his team to test drugs on the cells.
Bioengineer Stephen Quake develops a groundbreaking method to sequence the genome of an unborn baby using only a blood sample from the mother.
Pathologist Irving Weissman shows that a single antibody, which counters the effect of the CD47 molecule, shrinks a variety of human tumors transplanted into mice.
Geneticist Michael Snyder integrates a deep analysis of his DNA, RNA and the proteins in his cells; the analysis correctly predicts that he will develop diabetes.
An in-vitro activation procedure developed by endocrinologist Aaron Hsueh is used to induce egg growth in some infertile women, and one gives birth.
Bioengineer Karl Deisseroth develops CLARITY, a process that renders brain tissue from mice transparent, allowing the entire brain structure and its wiring to be studied.
Research led by immunologist Kari Nadeau shows a blood test could determine whether patients who have been desensitized to their peanut allergies need to continue eating peanuts daily to retain their tolerance.
Michael Greicius and his team have found that women who carry a copy of a gene variant called ApoE4 have a substantially greater risk of developing Alzheimer's.
Wyss-Coray and his collaborators are working to discover the specific factors in the blood of young mice that can recharge the brain of an old mouse.